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rex was feathered, at least during some stage of its life, as we do that australopithecines like Lucy had hair." The first evidence for feathers in tyrannosauroids came from the small species Dilong paradoxus, found in the Yixian Formation of China, and reported in 2004.
Some experts have suggested the dinosaur was primarily a scavenger.
(2011) found that the maximum weight of Sue, the largest complete Tyrannosaurus specimen, was between 9.5 and 18.5 metric tons (9.3–18.2 long tons; 10.5–20.4 short tons), though the authors stated that their upper and lower estimates were based on models with wide error bars and that they "consider [them] to be too skinny, too fat, or too disproportionate" and provided a mean estimate at 14 metric tons (15.4 short tons) for this specimen. (2009) tested dinosaur mass estimation procedures on elephants and concluded that those of dinosaurs are flawed and produce over-estimations; thus, the weight of Tyrannosaurus, as well as other dinosaurs, could have been much less.
Due to the relatively small number of recovered specimens and the large population of individuals present at any given time when Tyrannosaurus was alive, there could have easily been larger specimens than those currently known including "Sue", though discovery of these largest individuals may be forever untenable due to the incomplete nature of the fossil record.
and among the last non-avian dinosaurs to exist before the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction.
Like other tyrannosaurids, Tyrannosaurus was a bipedal carnivore with a massive skull balanced by a long, heavy tail.
The skull bones were massive and the nasals and some other bones were fused, preventing movement between them; but many were pneumatized (contained a "honeycomb" of tiny air spaces) which may have made the bones more flexible as well as lighter.
These and other skull-strengthening features are part of the tyrannosaurid trend towards an increasingly powerful bite, which easily surpassed that of all non-tyrannosaurids.
Relative to its large and powerful hind limbs, Tyrannosaurus fore limbs were short but unusually powerful for their size and had two clawed digits.
The most complete specimen measures up to 12.3 m (40 ft) in length, Although other theropods rivaled or exceeded Tyrannosaurus rex in size, it is still among the largest known land predators and is estimated to have exerted the largest bite force among all terrestrial animals.
The species Tyrannosaurus rex (rex meaning "king" in Latin) is one of the most well-represented of the large theropods.
Tyrannosaurus lived throughout what is now western North America, on what was then an island continent known as Laramidia.
The abundance of fossil material has allowed significant research into many aspects of its biology, including its life history and biomechanics.