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The solar cycle is the period after which week days and calendar dates repeat in the Julian calendar.
Today it is obvious that a year designated 1 would be preceded by year 0, which would be preceded by year -1, etc.
The second century began with AD 101 and continued through AD 200.
By extrapolation we find that the 20th century comprises the years AD 1901-2000.
Scaliger's initial epoch was later to be adopted as the initial epoch for the Julian Day numbers.
We would say that Scaliger's initial epoch was 4713 BC or -4712.
Many initial epochs have been used for calendrical reckoning.
Frequently, years were counted from the ascension of a ruler.
The indiction cycle was a Roman tax cycle of unknown origin.
Therefore, Scaliger could characterize a year by the combination of numbers (S, G, I), where S runs from 1 through 28, G from 1 through 19, and I from 1 through 15.
Therefore, the 21st century began with 1 January 2001 and will continue through 31 December 2100.
Similarly, the 1st millennium comprised the years AD 1-1000.
The 2nd millennium comprises the years AD 1001-2000.